Spasm is the cramping and contraction of a voluntary muscle involuntarily. But involuntary muscles, like those of the heart, blood vessels and the gastrointestinal tract, may also go into spasmodic contract unrhythmically.
When muscle tissue goes into a continuous cramp it is called a tonic spasm,when the contraction is alternated with quick relaxations it is called clonic.Cramps in the legs are of tonic nature and are caused by chilling, by a deficient diet and by faulty postures.
Intestinal spasms or cramps are caused by indigestion, gas, inflammations, operations, constipation and obstruction.Spasmodic contractions of the heart are caused by angina pectoris.Spasms of the throat and larynx may be caused by foreign bodies or inflammations or tumors.
Some spasms, like tics and twitchings of the face muscles, nodding and twisting of the head , are clonic spasms having a neurotic background, which can be cured by helping the patient trace the physiotherapy.
The spasmodic and convulsive seizures of the hysterical need careful treatment as outlined under the subject Hysteria