Structure Of Nephron explained detail here

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Structure Of nephron can be detail here
  • Glomerulus
The glomerulus is the main filter of the nephron and is located within the Bowman's capsule. A glomerulus and its surrounding Bowman's capsule constitute a renal corpuscle, the basic filtration unit of the kidney. From the Bowman’s Capsule, extends a narrow vessel, called the proximal convoluted tubule. This tubule twists and turns until it drains into a collecting tubule that carries urine toward the renal pelvis.
Glomerulus is a network of extremely thin blood vessels called capillaries. The glomerulus resembles a twisted mass of tiny tubes through which the blood passes. The glomerulus is semipermeable, allowing water and soluble wastes to pass through and be excreted out of the Bowman's capsule as urine. The filtered blood passes out of the glomerulus into the Efferent arteriole to be returned through the medullary plexus to the intralobular vein. 
tubule

A large volume of ultrafiltrate is produced by the glomerulus into the capsule. As this liquid traverses the proximal convoluted tubule, most of its water and salts are reabsorbed, some of the solutes completely and others partially. 
tubule kidney

A glomerulus is a capillary tuft surrounded by Bowman's capsule in nephrons. It receives its blood supply from an afferent arteriole of the renal circulation. Unlike most other capillary beds, the glomerulus drains into an efferent arteriole rather than a venule. The resistance of the arterioles results in high pressure in the glomerulus aiding the process of ultrafiltration where fluids and soluble materials in the blood are forced out of the capillaries and into Bowman's capsule. The rate at which blood is filtered through all of the glomeruli, and thus the measure of the overall renal function, is the glomerular filtration rate (GFR).
  • Henle’s Loop

 Henle’s Loop is part of renal tubule which become extremely narrow that extending down away from Bowman’s capsule and then back up again form a U shape. Surrounding loop of Henle and the other parts of the renal tubule is a network of capillaries, which are formed from a small blood vessel that branches out from glomerulus. 
uretra

The liquid entering the loop is the solution of salt, urea, and other substances passed along from glomerulus by proximal convoluted tubule. In this tubule, most of the dissolved components needed by the body; particularly glucose, amino acids, and sodium bicarbonate, is reabsorbed into the blood. The first segment of the loop, the descending limb, is permeable to water, and the liquid reaching the bend of the loop is much richer than the blood plasma in salt and urea. 
vagina health


As the liquid returns through the ascending limb, sodium chloride diffuses out of the tubule into the surrounding tissue, where its concentration is lower. In the third segment of the loop, the tubule wall can, if necessery, effect further removal of salt, even against the concentration gradient, in an active-transport process requiring the expenditure of energy. In a healty person the reabsorption of salt from the urine exactly maintains the bodily requirement: during periods of low salt intake, none is allowed to escape in the urine, but, in periods of high salt intake, the excess is excreted. 


Also called Duct of Bellini, any of the long narrow tubes in the kidney that concentrate and transport urine from the nephrons, to larger ducts that connect with the renal calyces. The liquid from the loop of Henle get into the Distal Convoluted Tubule in which reabsorbtion of sodium continues throughout the whole distal tubule. This reabsorbtion extends to the early part of the Renal Collecting Tubule.
Each collecting tubule is about 20-22 milimetres long and 20-50 microns in diameter. The walls of the tubule are composed of cell with hairlike projection, flagellae, in the tube’s channel. Motions of the flagellae help to move secretion through the tubes. As the collecting tubes become wider in diameter, the cells increase in height so that the wall becomes thicker.
The function of the collecting tubes are transportation of urine and absorbtion of water. It is thought that the tissue of the kidney’s medulla, or inner substance, contains a high concentration of sodium. As the collecting tubule travel through the medulla, the concentration of sodium causes water to be extracted through the tubule walls into the medulla. The water diffuses out between the collecting wall cells until the concentration of sodium is equal in the tubes and outside them. Removal of water from the solution in the tubes serves to concentrate the urine content and conserve body water.

Structure of Kidney

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a. Renal Capsule
Each kidney is encased in a transparent, fibrous membrane called a renal capsule. This membrane protects the kidney againts trauma and infection. The capsule is composed of tough fibres, chiefly collagen and elastin (fibrous proteins), that helps to support the kidney mass and protect the vital tissue from injury. The capsule receives its blood supply ultimately from the interlobar arteries, small vessels that branch off from the main renal arteries. These vessels travel through the cortex of the kidney and terminate in the capsule. This membrane usually 2 to 3 milimeters thick.
kidney structure

The capsule surrounds the outer walls and enters into a hollow region of the kidney known as the sinus. The sinus contains the major ducts that transport urine and the arteries and veins that supply the tissue with nutriens and oxygen. The capsule connects to these structure within the sinus and lines sinus wall.
In a normal person, the capsule is light reddish-purple in colour, translucent, smooth, and glistening. It can usually be easily stripped fro the rest of the kidney’s tissue. A diseased kidney frequently sends fibrous connections from the main body of tissue to the capsule, which makes the capsule adhere more strongly. Difficulty in removing the capsule is noted at autosy as an indication that the kidney was deseased.

b. Renal Cortex
Renal cortex is the outermost layer of the kidney. It is situated between Renal Capsule and Medulla. Upper part of nephron which is Glomerulus and Henle’s loop are situated in this layer. Renal cortex is a strong tissue that protect the inner layer of the kidney. The renal cortex is the outer portion of the kidney between the renal capsule and the renal medulla. In the adult, it forms a continuous smooth outer zone with a number of projections (cortical columns) that extend down between the pyramids. It contains the renal corpuscles and the renal tubules except for parts of the loop of Henle which descend into the renal medulla. It also contains blood vessels and cortical collecting ducts. The renal cortex is the part of the kidney where ultrafiltration occurs.
c. Renal Medulla (Renal Pyramids)
Renal Medulla lies beneath the Cortex. It is an area that contains between 8 and 18 cone-shaped section known as pyramids, which are formed almost entirely of bundles of microscopic tubules. The tips of these pyramids point toward the centre of the kidney. These tubules transport urine from the cortical, or outer, part of the kidney, where urine is produced, to the calyces, or cup-chaped cavities in which urine collects before it passes through the ureter to the bladder. Space between the pyramids filled by cortex and forms structures called renal columns.
The tips of each pyramid, called the papilla, point toward to the calyx at centre of the kidney. The surface of the papilla has a sievelike appearance because of the many small openings from which urine droplets pass. Each opening represents a tubule called the duct of Bellini, into which collecting tubules within the pyramid converge. Muscles fibres lead from the calyx to the papilla. As the muscle fibres of the calyx contract, urine flows through the ducts of Bellini into the calyx. The urine then flows to the bladder by way of the renal pelvis and ureter.
d. Renal Pelvis
Renal Pelvis is extend in the center of each kidney as the tube through which urine flows from the kidney to the urinary bladder. The shape of renal pelvis is like a funnel that is curved to one side. Renal pelvis is almost completely enclosed in the deep indentation on the concave side of the kidney, the sinus. The large end of the pelvis has roughly cuplike extension, called calyces. The calyces’ are cavities in which urine collects before it flows on the urinary bladder.
Renal pelvis is lined with a moist mucous-membrane layer that is only a few cells thick; the membrane is attached to a thicker coating of smooth muscle fibres, which, in turn, is surrounded by a layer of connective tissue. The mucous membrane of the pelvis is somewhat folded so that there is some room for tissue expansion when urine distends the pelvis. The muscle fibres are arranged in a longitudinal and a circular layer. Contractions of the muscle layers occur in periodic waves known as peristaltic movement. This movement push urine from the pelvis into the ureter and bladder. The lining of the pelvis and of the ureter is impermeable to the normal substances found in urine; thus, the walls of these structures do not absorb fluids.
e. Renal Vein and Renal Artery
Two of the body’s crucial blood vessels, renal vein and renal artery. This two vessel are branch of from the abdominal aorta (the abdominal portion of the major artery leading from the heart) and enter into each kidney by attach to the concave part of the kidney.
At the inner concavity of each kidney there is an opening, known as the hilum, through which the renal artery passes. After passing through the hilum, the renal artery divides ordinarily into two large branches, and each branch divides into a number of smaller arteries, which bring blood to the nephrons, the functioning units of the kidney. Blood that has been processed by the nephrons ultimately reaches the renal vein, which carries it back to the inferior vena cava and to the right side of the heart.
The renal arteries deliver to the kidneys of a normal person at rest 1.2 litres of blood per minute, a volume equivalent to approximately one-quarter of the heart’s output. Thus, a volume of blood equal to all that found in the body of an adult human being is processed by the kidneys once every four to five minutes. Although some physical condition can inhibit blood flow, there are certain self-regulatory mechanisms inherent to the arteries of the kidney that allow some adaptation to stress.
When the total body blood pressure rises or drop, sensory receptors of the nervous system located in the smooth muscle wall of the arteries are affected by the pressure changes, and, to compensate for the blood pressure variations, the arteries either expand or contract to keep a constant volume of blood flow.

f. Nephron
 The most important function of kidneys is to remove waste substances from the blood. Nephrons are the functional unit of the kidney in performing this task. Nephrons produce urine in the process of removing waste and excess substances from the blood. There are about 1.000.000 nephrons in each human kidney. These remarkable structure extend between the cortex and the medulla. Under magnification, nephrons look like tangles of tiny vessels or tubules, but each nephron actually has an orderly arrangement that makes possible filtration of wastes from the blood. Each nephron in the mammalian kidney is about 30-55 mm long. At one end of nephron is closed, expanded and folded into a double-walled cuplike structure. This structure, called the corpuscular capsule, or Bowman’s capsule. This capsule enclose glomerulus, the nephron’s primary structure in filtering function.

kidney function



Kidney Anatomy

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Few People realize how marveolus the kidneys are. They are actually the complex chemical factories. Capable of filtering the body entire blood supply twenty five times a day. The kidney cleaning the body’s toxic wastes while maintaining the proper balance of salt, acid and water.

Chemical wastes and excess water are collected by the kidney and deliver to the bladder in the form of urine. The kidney also help the body’s environment deed and manufacture important hormone which regulate blood pressure and aid production of red blood cells.

floating kidney
Although we seldom notice and because they usually work so beautifully, their work is not trully appreciated until they fail. The failure leads to high blood pressure, anemia and piled up of waste in the blood; potentially lifethreaning events

Kidney is one of the most important organ in human body. All vertebretes and some invertebretes have kidney. Human being, as well as all members of all vertebrete species, typically have two kidneys. Human’s kidneys are dark red in color and have a shape in which one side is convex, or rounded, and the other is concave, or indented. Human’s kidneys are about 10 to 13 cm long and about 5-7,5 cm wide. Adult human kidneys are about the size of a computer mouse.

Kidneys are located beneath the diaphragm and behind the peritoneum. they lie against the rear wall of the abdomen, on either side of the spine. They are situated below the middle of the back, beneath the liver on the right and the spleen on the left.

The most important function of kidneys is the removal of poisonous wastes from the blood. Most of these wastes are nitrogen-containing compounds urea and uric acid. Kidneys ability to carry out it’s function in removal wastes, depend on the functional unit of the kidney called nephrons.

Together with the bladder, two ureters, and the single urethra, the kidneys make up the body’s urinary system.

The Essence of Drug Addiction

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What Is Addiction? 
More than three decades of research supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has proven that addiction is a complex brain disease characterized by compulsive, at times uncontrollable, drug craving, seeking, and use that persist despite potentially devastating consequences. Addiction is also a developmental disease; that b., it usually starts in adolescence or even childhood and an last a lifetime if untreated.
Disagreements about the nature of addiction remain: namely, whether it reflects voluntary or involuntary behavior and whether it should be punished or treated as a health issue. Even though the first time a person takes a drug, It is often by choice to achieve a pleasurable sensation or desired emotional state we now know from a large body of research that this ability to choose can be affected by drugs. And when addiction takes hold in the brain, it disrupts a person's ability to exert control over behavior reflecting the compulsive nature of this disease. The human brain is an extraordinarily complex and fine-tuned communications network made up of billions of cells that govern our thoughts, emotions, perceptions, and drives. Our brains reward certain behaviors such as eating or procreating registering these as pleasurable activities that we want to repeat. Drug addiction taps into these vital mechanisms geared for our survival. And although not a life necessity, to an addicted person, drugs become life itself, driving the compulsive use of drugs—even in the face of dire life consequences that is the essence of addiction.

How Does Addiction Take Hold in the Brain? 
The rewarding effects of drugs of abuse come from large and rapid upsurges in dopamine, a neurochemical critical to stimulating feelings of pleasure and to motivating behavior. The rapid dopamine -rush* from drugs of abuse mimics but greatly exceeds in intensity and duration the feelings that occur in response to such pleasurable stimuli as the sight or smell of food, for example. Repeated exposure to large, drug•nduced dopamine surges has the insidious consequence of ultimately blunting the response of the dopamine system to ever day stimuli. Thus the drug disturbs a person's normal hierarchy of needs and desires and substitutes new priorities concerned with procuring and using the drug.
Drug abuse also disrupts the brain circuits involved in memory and control over behavior. Memories of the drug experience can trigger craving as can exposure to people, places, or things associated with former drug use. Sness is also a powerful trigger for craving. Control over behavior is compromised because the affected frontal brain regions are what a person needs to exert inhibitory control over desires and emotions. That is why addiction is a brain disease. As a person's reward circuitry becomes increasingly dulled and desensitized by drugs, nothing else can compete with them
food, family, and friends lose their relative value, while the ability to curb the need to seek and use drugs evaporates. Ironically and cruelly, eventually even the drug loses its ability to reward, but the compromised brain leads addicted people to pursue it, anyway; the memory of the drug has become more powerful than the drug itself.
Why Are Some People More Vulnerable Than Others?
Like many other diseases, vulnerability to addiction is influenced by multiple factors, with genetic, environmental, and developmental factors all contributing. Genetics accounts for approximately half of an individual's vulnerability to addiction, including the effects of the environment on gene function and expression. Elements of our social environments culture, neighborhoods, schools, families, peer groups can also greatly influence individual choices and decisions about behaviors related to substance abuse, which can in turn affect vulnerability. Indeed, addiction is a quintessential gene-by-environment-interaction disease: a person must be exposed to drugs (environment) to become addicted, wt exposure alone does not determine whether that will happen predisposing genes Interact with this and other environmental factors to create vulnerability. In fact, environmental variables such as stress or drug exposure can cause lasting changes to genes and their function, known as epigenetic changes, which an result In long-term changes to brain circuits. Genes may also mitigate the effects of environment which is why, for example, two substance abusing individuals growing up In the same high-risk environment may have very different outcomes. Adding to the complexity, the contributions of environmental and genetic risk factors may also vary during the different life stages of childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. Adolescence is the period when addiction typically takes hold. Additionally, because their brains are still undergoing rapid development in areas that contribute to decksion making, judgment, and risk-taking, adolescents tend toward immediate gratification over long-term goals. This can lead to risk-taking, Including experimenting with drugs. When coupled with their increased sensitivity to social or peer influences and decreased sensitivity to negative consequences of behavior, it is easy to see why adolescents are particularly vulnerable to drug abuse.
How Can People Recover Once They're Addicted?
As with any other medical disorder that impairs the function of vital organs, repair and recovery of the addicted brain depends on targeted and effective treatments that must address the complexity of the disease. We continue to gain new insights into ways to optimize treatments to counteract addiction's powerful disruptive effects on brain and behavior because we now know that with prolonged abstinence, our brains can recover at least sane of their former functioning, enabling people to regain control of their lives.
drugs

That said, the chronic nature of the disease means that relapsing to drug abuse is not only possible but likely, with relapse rates similar to those for other well characterised chronic medical illnesses such as diabetes, hypertension, and asthma. For all these diseases, including drug abuse, treatment involves changing deeply embedded behaviors, so lapses should not be considered failure but rather Indicate that treatment needs to be reinstated or adjusted, or that alternate treatment is needed. But addicted individuals also need to do their pan. Even though they are dealing with a compromised brain that affects decision-making and judgment, people with drug abuse or addiction must also take responsibility to get treatment and actively participate in It.
What Is Our Best Approach to Stopping Drug Abuse in This Country?
 Although we have a range of effective addiction treatment options in our clinical toolbox, we still don't have enough to address the many facets of this problem. Research continues to search for improved prevention and treatment options and to reveal promising new strategies to help people deal with their compulsive drug use. Science-based approaches to tackling drug abuse and addiction will yield smart solutions that bring positive change. As a society, the success of our efforts to deal with the drug problem depends on having an accurate understanding of it. Education
By Nora Volkow, M.D., Director, National Institute on Drug Abuse

Menopause Symptoms In a Woman

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Menopause or change of life marks the time of cessation of menstruation. In some women it stops abruptly and in others it stops gradually, becoming less and less over a period of a year or longer until it finally stops altogether. In some, the menstruation will stop for many months, then return for a few months repeatedly, and finally disappear for good.

As long as there are no hemorrhages and no black looking clots and tissue fragments, and the woman feels well, there is nothing to worry about. The menopause may come any time be-tween the ages of 40 to 50. Sometimes it occurs sooner than 40 and sometimes later than 50. I have delivered some women of babies past their 5oth year.

bioidentical hormones
Colorado Optimal Health
A woman who has not been using at coholic beverages, has not smoked, has not been on starvation diets for reducing purposes, but who has lived up to a correct hygienic code, sustained herself on an adequate diet, and managed to live a peaceful and contented life will usually suffer no unpleasant symptoms at the menopause.

She may experience some flushes or excessive perspiration for a while, but it will not disturb or upset her normal way of life and she will continue to be the happy and youthful individual as ever before.

The best way to act at this period until the system adjusts itself to its second youth without menstruation is to get plenty of fresh air day and night, get plenty of sleep by going to bed not later than 11:00 P.M., have a warm shower daily with a brisk rub down using a Turkish towel; cut out excessive fats and sweets from the diet and eat plain and nourishing foods generally.

She should drink plenty of water and keep the bowels active daily; this is really how she has presumably lived up to the time of the menopause. However, it is more important to observe this mode of life from now on, if she wishes to feel well, look young and live long.

Small doses of thyroid are sometimes advisable
Menorrhagia 615 in cases of irregularity of bleeding before the periods stop altogether, or if other symptoms such as tiredness and headaches are present

Endocrine System Definition

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ENDOCRINES (DUCTLESS GLANDS) The several ductless glands are distributed in different parts of the body, and secrete chemical substances known as hormones or internal secretions. They act in unison and harmony with each other, in their common purpose of controlling, coordinating, and stimulating all vital body functions, such as secretion, metabolism, growth, and reproduction.

ENDOCRINES
In their united and harmonious way of affecting the body functions they are similar to the nervous system, except that the nervous system accomplishes its mission through a network of wires (nerves) which really carry electric currents, while the ductless glands accomplish their purpose by a wireless system of throwing minute quantities of powerful chemical substances into the blood and lymph channels (vessels), and in that fashion reaching and affecting every tissue, organ and function of the body.

The secretions of these glands are absorbed directly by the small blood and lymph vessels in the ductless glands, without passing through ducts or secretory tubes as is the case with all other glands; that is why they are called the ductless glands.

When any one of the ductless glands is affected by underdevelopment or over development, by excessive secretion or deficient secretion, certain well-known and serious diseases or profound changes in the body are produced. There are still in the body many more internal secretions or hormones of which we have no knowledge or understanding. Some of the known internal secretions are discussed below.

Pituitrin

Pituitrin is one of many hormones secreted by one of the most vital glands in the body, the pituitary gland, which is situated in the skull below the brain and just above the back part of the nasal cavity. The posterior portion or lobe of this gland secretes pituitrin, a hormone known a long time, which regulates the contractions of the involuntary muscles of the intestinal and genito urinary tracts.

Extracts of animal pituitary glands have therefore come to be used in medicine as an injection to in-crease labor pains or contractions of the uterus, thus hastening delivery. The several hormones secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland have been discovered more recently; they are known to control the growth of the bones and regulate the activity of the male and female sex glands, influencing menstruation, ovulation and lactation.

Overdevelopment and increased secretion of this lobe in childhood causes the phenomenon of gigantism or increased growth of the bones. The next time you go to the circus and see a 10-foot giant you will know how he got that way.

Midgets suffer from a lack of this secretion. Increased activity and secretion of the anterior lobe in mature persons causes a disease known as acromegaly, in which all the bones of the body, Instead of growing in lenghth, become extremely thickened.

You have probably noticed such people, with unusually large, protruding jaws, heavy brows, high heads, thick, stubby fingers and extremely broad shoulders.

Encephalitis Treatment

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Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain caused by infections in other parts of the body, by metallic poisons like lead or arsenic, by poisonous gases and fumes, by alcohol, syphilis, tuberculosis, or by parasites of trichinosis or malaria. It may also follow acute or chronic ear infections.

It usually starts with a severe headache, nausea and vomiting, high fever, sleepiness, dizziness and delirium. The patient may develop convulsions and paralysis of various parts. The patient must be kept in a perfectly quiet and darkened room with head elevated, and an ice bag over his head.

japanese encephalitis
He should be given a liquid but nourishing diet. The sulfa drugs and penicillin save many of these patients. There is a form of encephalitis called the "lethargic" which occurs as an epidemic now and then. This form comes on slowly and gradually, about ten days after exposure to the germs or virus of the disease.

Lethargic encephalitis often makes an invalid of the patient, with some symptoms lasting months after the attack. The fever in these cases is not high; but the patient is forever drowsy, has disturbances of vision and may develop various tics and tremors like in St. Vitus's dance.

They often suffer from various mental disturbances. This type is easily confused with many other disease conditions, and it takes much ingenuity to tell them apart. Nor is the cause of the various types of encephalitis known. It may be a germ or virus.

The best one can do about these dangerous diseases is to prevent being attacked by them, by the methods indicated under the topics Empiric, Hygiene, Infection and Immunity.

ENDARTERITIS
 Endarteritis is an inflammation of the inner lining of an artery. If the artery of a limb is affected, gangrene may result. But most cases of acute endarteritis of a small artery recover with no serious consequences. Focal infections and rheumatism may cause it. Chronic cases are caused by tobacco, alcohol, syphilis or tuberculosis. The cause needs to be given attention in all cases. Large doses of Vitamin "E" are now used successfully in these chronic cases. This Vitamin taken in doses of 75 milligrams three times a day is said to prevent gangrene.

ENDEMIC
 Endemic refers to a disease which occurs in epidemic form and is more or less always present, but is confined to only a certain locality or only among a certain people, as pellagra in our South, and cholera in India. Epidemic refers to a disease attacking large groups of people at the same time but is not confined to a particular locality, and may spring up in any part of the world. If a disease does affect many parts of the world at the same time it is called pandemic.

ENDOCARDITIS 
Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner lining of the heart. Sometimes the disease is confined to the valves of the heart, and at other times the lining of the entire heart is affected, often extending to the muscular structure (myocarditis) and also to the outer covering (pericarditis).

There is one form called malignant or ulcerative, which is a rather serious condition. Since the disease usually follows some already existing infection in another part of the body, like rheumatism, gonorrhea, syphilis or a streptococcic infection, the disease will be recognized by an increase and prolongation of the fever, by the appearance of a murmur at the apex of the heart, by the more rapid and weaker pulse, by an increase in the white blood cells and a decrease of the red blood cells, by shortness of breath and by general weakness of the patient.
Both the sulfa drugs and penicillin are now used at the same time. Penicillin is given in very large doses, even as high as a million units per day, and many of the cases which were hopeless years ago are now recovering under the miracle drugs.

But it still is better to prevent all infections by hygienic living, by keeping infections out of your body, by not coming in personal contact with infected persons, by keeping your hands and the rest of the body clean, eating clean, fresh and freshly prepared food, not over-working yourself to exhaustion, not exercising too much, getting enough sleep and fresh air, and keeping away from alcohol and tobacco.