Curious but Crucial Facts for Men

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For many men, a woman’s lady bits present a sense of mystery and wonder (although the same could likely be said for a female getting acquainted with a man’s equipment). Even the man who has had plenty of experience with the world down under is sure to have a few questions rolling around.  Finally, get the answers to those questions that are too embarrassing to ask a woman, as well tips on how to maintain the male equipment for a healthy penis 24/7 – and better sex.

Why does it make noise during sex?

Known as “queefing,” that funny vaginal fart that sometimes slips out occurs due to the combination of arousal and thrusting.  As the vagina becomes engorged, it expands slightly in preparation for sex.  Combine that with vigorous thrusting, and air that has made its way up there is released with different movements.  No need for embarrassment from either party; it is perfectly normal and healthy.
noise during sex

My girlfriend “squirts” during orgasms. Is it pee?

While some women may release small amounts of urine during sex  – possibly due to stress incontinence, it sounds like what she is experiencing female ejaculation, because it is being expelled with force from her vagina.  Female ejaculation is a fairly rare phenomenon, but it does happen. While the exact composition of the liquid is debated among professionals and researchers, it is thought the liquid may contain some urine along with other bodily fluids.  So, there’s the answer; she’s not peeing during sex – rather, she is she-jaculating!

Why does the vagina smell?

Well, guys, the male genitals are no bunch of roses either, but a slight female odor is perfectly normal.  The vagina is self-cleaning and therefore discharges dead skin cells, bacteria and the like in an effort to ward off infection, all of which contribute to the odor.  Now, if there is a sudden change in her odor, or it becomes increasingly strong, offensive, or is accompanied by a great deal of discharge it is possible she has an infection such as yeast or bacterial vaginosis – both of which should be checked out and treated by a doc.  Otherwise, if a man finds her odor to be a turn-off, she can take a quick shower before sex to freshen up.  However, a woman should never use perfumes or other scents to try to mask the smell of her vagina, as those chemicals could very well lead to infection. Using a homemade or commercial douche is also a bad idea, since these can change the pH balance of the vagina and lead to infection, as well.

Is it safe to have sex during a woman’s period?

Yes, there is nothing wrong with having sex while a woman is menstruating, so long as she is healthy.  If the woman has HIV/AIDS or another blood-borne illness, obviously, this puts her partner at risk due to the direct contact with blood – even with consistent condom use – so sex should be skipped during her time of the month.  Not a fan of seeing blood?  Try shower sex to stay squeaky clean – and keep the bed sheets clean, too! And of course, make sure she is comfortable with the idea – a woman who is in the throes of menstrual cramps may not be enthusiastic about any below-the-belt action, at least for a day or two.

Keeping the Penis Healthy

Any man who is sexually active should make it a priority to keep his penis healthy. Not only does a healthy tool make for better sex; it also reduces the risk of giving – or getting – an unpleasant infection. Proper penis care goes beyond just soap and water – though that is an obvious place to start.  For optimum penis health, men need to take care of their entire body.  It is important to eat right, exercise and maintain a healthy weight – after all an unhealthy body leads to an unhealthy sex life as well.  Additionally, men interested in maintaining optimum penile health should use a penis health cream (health professionals recommend Man 1 Man Oil) that contains specially formulated nutrients such as L-Arginine to improve the circulation to the penis in order to maximize the delivery of nutrients and oxygen.

source from man1health.com

OTHER BLOOD GROUP SYSTEMS

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The International Society of Blood Transfusion currently recognizes 30 blood group systems (including the ABO and Rh systems).[2] Thus, in addition to the ABO antigens and Rhesus antigens, many other antigens are expressed on the RBC surface membrane.

For example, an individual can be AB RhD positive, and at the same time M and N positive (MNS system), K positive (Kell system), Lea or Leb negative (Lewis system), and so on, being positive or negative for each blood group system antigen. Many of the blood group systems were named after the patients in whom the corresponding antibodies were initially encountered.

 BLOOD TRANSFUSION

Transfusion medicine is a specialized branch of hematology that is concerned with the study of blood groups, along with the work of a blood bank to provide a transfusion service for blood and other blood products. Across the world, blood products must be prescribed by a medical doctor (licensed physician or surgeon) in a similar way as medicines. In the USA, blood products are tightly regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Much of the routine work of a blood bank involves testing blood from both donors and recipients to ensure that every individual recipient is given blood that is compatible and is as safe as possible. If a unit of incompatible blood is transfused between a donor and recipient, a severe acute immunological reaction, hemolysis (RBC destruction), renal failure and shock are likely to occur, and death is a possibility. Antibodies can be highly active and can attack RBCs and bind components of the complement system to cause massive hemolysis of the transfused blood.

Patients should ideally receive their own blood or type-specific blood products to minimize the chance of a transfusion reaction. Risks can be further reduced by cross-matching blood, but this may be skipped when blood is required for an emergency.

 Cross-matching involves mixing a sample of the recipient's serum with a sample of the donor's red blood cells and checking if the mixture agglutinates, or forms clumps. If agglutination is not obvious by direct vision, blood bank technicians usually check for agglutination with a microscope. If agglutination occurs, that particular donor's blood cannot be transfused to that particular recipient.

The blood group may be included on identification tags or on tattoos worn by military personnel, in case they should need an emergency blood transfusion. Frontline German Waffen-SS had blood group tattoos during World War II.

Rare blood types can cause supply problems for blood banks and hospitals. For example Duffy-negative blood occurs much more frequently in people of African origin,[38] and the rarity of this blood type in the rest of the population can result in a shortage of Duffy-negative blood for patients of African ethnicity. Similarly for RhD negative people, there is a risk associated with travelling to parts of the world where supplies of RhD negative blood are rare, particularly East Asia, where blood services may endeavor to encourage Westerners to donate blood.[39]

HEMOLYTIC DISEASE OF THE NEWBORN (HDN)


A pregnant woman can make IgG blood group antibodies if her fetus has a blood group antigen that she does not have. This can happen if some of the fetus' blood cells pass into the mother's blood circulation (e.g. a small fetomaternal hemorrhage at the time of childbirth or obstetric intervention), or sometimes after a therapeutic blood transfusion.

This can cause Rh disease or other forms of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) in the current pregnancy and/or subsequent pregnancies. If a pregnant woman is known to have anti-RhD antibodies, the RhD blood type of a fetus can be tested by analysis of fetal DNA in maternal plasma to assess the risk to the fetus of Rh disease.[40] One of the major advances of twentieth century medicine was to prevent this disease by stopping the formation of Anti-RhD antibodies by RhD negative mothers with an injectable medication called Rho(D) immune globulin.[41][42] Antibodies associated with some blood groups can cause severe HDN, others can only cause mild HDN and others are not known to cause HDN.[3]

BLOOD PRODUCTS

In order to provide maximum benefit from each blood donation and to extend shelf-life, blood banks fractionate some whole blood into several products. The most common of these products are packed RBCs, plasma, platelets, cryoprecipitate, and fresh frozen plasma (FFP). FFP is quick-frozen to retain the labile clotting factors V and VIII, which are usually administered to patients who have a potentially fatal clotting problem caused by a condition such as advanced liver disease, overdose of anticoagulant, or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).
Units of packed red cells are made by removing as much of the plasma as possible from whole blood units.
Clotting factors synthesized by modern recombinant methods are now in routine clinical use for hemophilia, as the risks of infection transmission that occur with pooled blood products are avoided.

RED BLOOD CELL COMPATIBILITY

Blood group AB individuals have both A and B antigens on the surface of their RBCs, and their blood serum does not contain any antibodies against either A or B antigen. Therefore, an individual with type AB blood can receive blood from any group (with AB being preferable), but can donate blood only to another type AB individual.

Blood group A individuals have the A antigen on the surface of their RBCs, and blood serum containing IgM antibodies against the B antigen. Therefore, a group A individual can receive blood only from individuals of groups A or O (with A being preferable), and can donate blood to individuals with type A or AB.

Blood group B individuals have the B antigen on the surface of their RBCs, and blood serum containing IgM antibodies against the A antigen. Therefore, a group B individual can receive blood only from individuals of groups B or O (with B being preferable), and can donate blood to individuals with type B or AB.

Blood group O (or blood group zero in some countries) individuals do not have either A or B antigens on the surface of their RBCs, but their blood serum contains IgM anti-A antibodies and anti-B antibodies against the A and B blood group antigens. Therefore, a group O individual can receive blood only from a group O individual, but can donate blood to individuals of any ABO blood group (ie A, B, O or AB). If anyone needs a blood transfusion in a dire emergency, and if the time taken to process the recipient's blood would cause a detrimental delay, O Negative blood can be issued.

PLASMA COMPATIBILITY

Recipients can receive plasma of the same blood group, but otherwise the donor-recipient compatibility for blood plasma is the converse of that of RBCs: plasma extracted from type AB blood can be transfused to individuals of any blood group; individuals of blood group O can receive plasma from any blood group; and type O plasma can be used only by type O recipients.
Plasma compatibility table


Table note1. Assumes absence of strong atypical antibodies in donor plasma
Rhesus D antibodies are uncommon, so generally neither RhD negative nor RhD positive blood contain anti-RhD antibodies. If a potential donor is found to have anti-RhD antibodies or any strong atypical blood group antibody by antibody screening in the blood bank, they would not be accepted as a donor (or in some blood banks the blood would be drawn but the product would need to be appropriately labeled); therefore, donor blood plasma issued by a blood bank can be selected to be free of RhD antibodies and free of other atypical antibodies, and such donor plasma issued from a blood bank would be suitable for a recipient who may be RhD positive or RhD negative, as long as blood plasma and the recipient are ABO compatible.

UNIVERSAL DONORS AND UNIVERSAL RECIPIENTS

With regard to transfusions of whole blood or packed red blood cells, individuals with type O negative blood are often called universal donors, and those with type AB positive blood are called universal recipients; however, these terms are only generally true with respect to possible reactions of the recipient's anti-A and anti-B antibodies to transfused red blood cells, and also possible sensitization to RhD antigens. Exceptions include individuals with hh antigen system (also known as the Bombay blood group) who can only receive blood safely from other hh donors, because they form antibodies against the H substance.[45][46]

Blood donors with particularly strong anti-A, anti-B or any atypical blood group antibody are excluded from blood donation. The possible reactions of anti-A and anti-B antibodies present in the transfused blood to the recipients RBCs need not be considered, because a relatively small volume of plasma containing antibodies is transfused.

By way of example; considering the transfusion of O RhD negative blood (universal donor blood) into a recipient of blood group A RhD positive, an immune reaction between the recipient's anti-B antibodies and the transfused RBCs is not anticipated. However, the relatively small amount of plasma in the transfused blood contains anti-A antibodies, which could react with the A antigens on the surface of the recipients RBCs, but a significant reaction is unlikely because of the dilution factors. Rhesus D sensitization is not anticipated.

Read other Blood type

Blood Type Test

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A blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of blood based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). These antigens may be proteins, carbohydrates, glycoproteins, or glycolipids, depending on the blood group system, and some of these antigens are also present on the surface of other types of cells of various tissues. Several of these red blood cell surface antigens, that stem from one allele (or very closely linked genes), collectively form a blood group system.[1]

Blood types are inherited and represent contributions from both parents. A total of 30 human blood group systems are now recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT).[2]
Many pregnant women carry a fetus with a different blood type from their own, and the mother can form antibodies against fetal RBCs. Sometimes these maternal antibodies are IgG, a small immunoglobulin, which can cross the placenta and cause hemolysis of fetal RBCs, which in turn can lead to hemolytic disease of the newborn, an illness of low fetal blood counts which ranges from mild to severe.[3]

SEROLOGY

If an individual is exposed to a blood group antigen that is not recognised as self, the immune system will produce antibodies that can specifically bind to that particular blood group antigen, and an immunological memory against that antigen is formed. The individual will have become sensitized to that blood group antigen.

These antibodies can bind to antigens on the surface of transfused red blood cells (or other tissue cells), often leading to destruction of the cells by recruitment of other components of the immune system. When IgM antibodies bind to the transfused cells, the transfused cells can clump. It is vital that compatible blood is selected for transfusions and that compatible tissue is selected for organ transplantation. Transfusion reactions involving minor antigens or weak antibodies may lead to minor problems. However, more serious incompatibilities can lead to a more vigorous immune response with massive RBC destruction, low blood pressure, and even death.

ABO AND RH BLOOD GROUPING

Anti-A and Anti-B, the common IgM antibodies to the RBC surface antigens of the ABO blood group system are sometimes described as being "naturally occurring", however, this is a misnomer, because these antibodies are formed in infancy by sensitisation in the same way as other antibodies.

The theory that explains how these antibodies are developed states that antigens similar to the A and B antigens occur in nature, including in food, plants and bacteria. After birth an infant gut becomes colonized with normal flora which express these A-like and B-like antigens, causing the immune system to make antibodies to those antigens that the red cells do not possess.

So, people who are blood type A will have Anti-B, blood type B will have Anti-A, blood type O will have both Anti-A and Anti-B, and blood type AB will have neither. Because of these so called "naturally occurring" and expected antibodies, it is important to correctly determine a patient's blood type prior to transfusion of any blood component. These naturally occurring antibodies are of the IgM class, which have the capability of agglutinating (clumping) and damaging red cells within the blood vessels, possibly leading to death.

It is not necessary to determine any other blood groups because almost all other red cell antibodies can only develop through active immunization, which can only occur through either previous blood transfusion or pregnancy. A test called the Antibody Screen is always performed on patients who may require red blood cell transfusion, and this test will detect most clinically significant red cell antibodies.

The RhD antigen is also important in determining a person's blood type. The terms "positive" or "negative" refer to either the presence or absence of the RhD antigen irrespective of the presence or absence of the other antigens of the Rhesus system.

Anti-RhD is not usually a naturally occurring antibody as the Anti-A and Anti-B antibodies are. Cross-matching for the RhD antigen is extremely important, because the RhD antigen is immunogenic, meaning that a person who is RhD negative is very likely to make Anti-RhD when exposed to the RhD antigen (perhaps through either transfusion or pregnancy). Once an individual is sensitised to RhD antigens their blood will contain RhD IgG antibodies which can bind to RhD positive RBCs and may cross the placenta.

BLOOD GROUP SYSTEMS

A total of 30 human blood group systems are now recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT).[2] A complete blood type would describe a full set of 30 substances on the surface of RBCs, and an individual's blood type is one of the many possible combinations of blood group antigens. Across the 30 blood groups, over 600 different blood group antigens have been found,[4] but many of these are very rare or are mainly found in certain ethnic groups.

Almost always, an individual has the same blood group for life; but very rarely an individual's blood type changes through addition or suppression of an antigen in infection, malignancy or autoimmune disease.[5][6][7][8] An example of this rare phenomenon is the case Demi-Lee Brennan, an Australian citizen, whose blood group changed after a liver transplant.[9][10] Another more common cause in blood type change is a bone marrow transplant.

Bone marrow transplants are performed for many leukemias and lymphomas, among other diseases. If a person receives a bone marrow from someone who is a different ABO type (ex. a type A patient receives a type O bone marrow), the patient's blood type will eventually convert to the donor's type.

Some blood types are associated with inheritance of other diseases; for example, the Kell antigen is sometimes associated with McLeod syndrome.[11] Certain blood types may affect susceptibility to infections, an example being the resistance to specific malaria species seen in individuals lacking the Duffy antigen.[12] The Duffy antigen, presumably as a result of natural selection, is less common in ethnic groups from areas with a high incidence of malaria.[13]

ABO BLOOD GROUP SYSTEM

The ABO system is the most important blood group system in human blood transfusion. The associated anti-A antibodies and anti-B antibodies are usually "Immunoglobulin M", abbreviated IgM, antibodies. ABO IgM antibodies are produced in the first years of life by sensitization to environmental substances such as food, bacteria and viruses. The "O" in ABO is often called "0" (zero/null) in other languages.[14]
blood type test group












RHESUS BLOOD GROUP SYSTEM

Main article: Rhesus blood group system
The Rhesus system is the second most significant blood group system in human blood transfusion. The most significant Rhesus antigen is the RhD antigen because it is the most immunogenic of the five main rhesus antigens. It is common for RhD negative individuals not to have any anti-RhD IgG or IgM antibodies, because anti-RhD antibodies are not usually produced by sensitization against environmental substances. 

However, RhD negative individuals can produce IgG anti-RhD antibodies following a sensitizing event: possibly a fetomaternal transfusion of blood from a fetus in pregnancy or occasionally a blood transfusion with RhD positive RBCs.
ABO AND RH DISTRIBUTION BY COUNTRY


Kidney Disease Symptoms in Adults

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Kidney disease is now attacking the youth because of unhealthy lifestyles. This follows existing diseases of the kidney

1. Pyelonephritis 

infection and inflammation of the kidney tissue and the renal pelvis (the cavity formed by the expansion of the upper end of the ureter, the tube that conveys urine to the bladder). The infection is usually bacterial.

The most common type of renal disorder, pyelonephritis may be chronic or acute.
Acute pyelonephritis generally affects one specific region of the kidney, leaving the rest of the kidney structure untouched. In many instances pyelonephritis develops without any apparent precipitating cause.

Any obstruction to the flow of blood or urine, however, may make the kidneys more susceptible to infection, and fecal soiling of the urethral opening is thought to increase the incidence of the disease in infants (the urethra is the channel for urine from the bladder to the outside).

Women may suffer injury of the urinary passages during intercourse or pregnancy, and catheterization (mechanical draining of urine) can cause infection.

2. Glomerulonephritis

Glomerulonephritis, another common kidney disease, is characterized by inflammation of some of the kidney's glomeruli. This condition may occur when the body’s immune system is impaired. Antibodies and other substances form large particles in the bloodstream that become trapped in the glomeruli.

This causes inflammation and prevents the glomeruli from working properly. Symptoms may include blood in the urine, swelling of body tissues, and the presence of protein in the urine, as determined by laboratory tests.

Glomerulonephritis often clears up without treatment. When treatment is necessary, it may include a special diet, immunosuppressant drugs, or plasmapheresis, a procedure that removes the portion of the blood that contains antibodies.

Glomerulonephritis is the disorder commonly known as nephritis, or Bright's disease. The primary impact of the disease is on the vessels of the glomerular tuft. The suffix “-itis” suggests an inflammatory lesion, and glomerulonephritis is indeed associated with infection, in the limited sense that it may begin soon after a streptococcal infection and may be aggravated in its later course by infections of various kinds.

Nevertheless, there is convincing evidence that glomerulonephritis does not represent a direct attack on the kidney by an infective agent; it appears to be, rather, an immunologic disorder, in the sense of the formation of antibodies in response to the presence of a foreign protein (antigen) elsewhere in the body; these form antigen antibody complexes that lodge in the glomerular tuft or, in a small number of cases, themselves become deposited on the capillary glomerular walls.

In each case the antibody or the antigen–antibody complex reaches the kidney via the circulation, and the mechanism is usually referred to as circulating complex disease.

3. Kidney Stone

also called Renal Calculus, plural Renal Calculi, concretion of minerals and organic matter that forms in the kidneys. Such stones may become so large as to impair normal renal function. Urine contains many salts in solution and if the concentration of mineral salts becomes excessive, the excess salt precipitates as solid particles called stones.

 Kidney stones are classified as primary if they form without apparent cause, such as an infection or obstruction. They are classified as secondary if they develop after a renal infection or disorder.
Certain circumstances increase the likelihood of stone formation.

Either a reduction in fluid volume or a surge in mineral concentration can be enough to upset the delicate balance between the liquid and its solutes. Once a stone starts developing, it generally continues to grow. A nucleus for precipitation of urinary salts can be a clump of bacteria, degenerated tissue, sloughed-off cells, or a tiny blood clot.

Minerals start collecting around the foreign particle and encrusting it. As the stone increases in size, the surface area available for additional mineral deposition is continually increased.

Smaller kidney stones can pass out of the body on their own, although this can be painful. Larger stones may require surgery, or they may be broken into smaller pieces with sound waves in a procedure called ultrasonic lithotripsy.

4. Kidney Failure

also called Renal Failure, partial or complete loss of kidney function. Kidney failure is classified as acute (when the onset is sudden) or chronic.

Acute kidney failure results in reduced output of urine, abnormally high levels of nitrogenous substances, potassium, sulfates, and phosphates in the blood, and abnormally low blood levels of sodium, calcium, and carbon dioxide (see uremia). Ordinarily the affected person recovers in six weeks or less.

Causes of kidney failure include destruction of the tubules in the kidney by drugs or organic solvents such as carbon tetrachloride, acetone, and ethylene glycol; exposure to compounds of metals such as mercury, lead, and uranium; physical injuries or major surgery causing much loss of blood or an increase in blood pressure; severe burns; and incompatible blood transfusions.

Renal failure can also result from diseases that destroy the cortex (outer substance) of the kidney; from severe bacterial infections of the kidney; from diabetes that causes destruction of the medulla (the inner substance) of the kidney; and from overabundance of calcium salts in the kidneys.

Blockage of the renal arteries, liver diseases, and obstruction of the urinary tract produce acute failure; on rare occasions, kidney failure can occur without apparent symptoms.

Complications that arise from kidney failure include heart failure, pulmonary edema, and an overabundance of potassium in the body.

Chronic renal failure is usually the result of prolonged diseases of the kidney. In chronic failure the blood becomes more acidic than normal and there can be loss of calcium from the bones. Nerve degeneration can also occur.

5. How Keeping Healthy Kidney

Most people have been told that it is important to drink 8-10 glasses of good water a day. Urine should be 96% or better of water in order to flush all the sediment out of the kidneys. It is almost impossible to get good water today. Experts suggest that people only drink water purified by a reverse osmosis system.

Even Reverse Osmosis (R.O.) water needs to be kept refrigerated. Many people are buying bottled water. When water is stagnant it breeds bacteria unless it is distilled or chemically treated. Chemicals used to purify the water are linked with kidney disease, high blood pressure, cancer, and more. Distilled water is unstable molecularly.

The process of distilling encourages Hydrogens to share an oxygen molecule. Some natural healers say that before anyone has ANY SYMPTOMS of kidney problems they can have at LEAST 60% KIDNEY DAMAGE, so it's very important to strive to keep them healthy.

It is still called H2O or Water, but everything in nature tries to stabilize itself including distilled water. As the unstable water passes through the urinary system, especially the kidneys it will draw out oxygen which, with prolong use, can weaken the kidneys. I don't believe that anything not found in that state in nature be considered totally safe.

A high quality spring water, should be a good source as well. Water drawn from pure springs not refrigerated will breed bacteria no matter how sterile looking the bottle. Some people say "The top of the water cooler isn't refrigerated but as it comes out it passes a cooling system." What they are drinking then is cold bacteria. If you had piece of meat out for days or weeks could you make it safe by refrigerating it right before you eat it?

Many a public water system has been laced with fluoride to strengthen our teeth. This Fluoride can alter the brain function and can destroy your kidneys. You can buy a new set of teeth much easier than going through a kidney transplant.

Another important aspect in keeping healthy kidneys is to keep all of the other eliminating systems functioning properly. The 2.4 million nephrons inside the kidney filter the blood. If the bowel, liver, or the skin is not functioning properly the blood will be more toxic and will cause more acid than the kidneys are designed to handle.
Kidney Disease Symptoms

Many with gout will attest to this fact.

Probably what causes the most abuse to the kidneys are: 

  • COFFEE, TEA AND SODA. Some people think that it's the caffeine in these drinks that is hard on the kidneys and joints. Caffeine is not good for you, but it is the tannic acid that damages the kidneys. Another real offender is artificial colored sugar water. Carbonation is also very hard on the kidneys. 
  • DON'T DRINK COFFEE, TEA, SODA, AND ARTIFICIAL COLORED DRINKS. CUT OUT ALL MILK PRODUCTS AND LIMIT RED MEATS. 
  • Do drink good water, juices and herbal teas. 
  • Keep your cholesterol level below 5.5 
  • Maintain a healthy body mass index. Obesity poses a significant risk when it comes to kidney disease. 
  • Do 30 minutes of exercise daily, a moderate intensity walk is adequate for general well being. 
  • Do not smoke. Smokers have a much greater risk of kidney disease. 
  • Eat a healthy, well balanced diet with lots of fruits, vegetables, whole grains and lean meat. Reduce your consumption of fast food and high fat food. 
  • Keep your blood pressure below 130/90. High blood pressure (known as hypertension) can cause kidney disease. 
  • Take preventive measures against getting type 2 diabetes or if you have diabetes manage it well. Diabetes can cause kidney disease. 
  • Avoid taking unnecessary medications-drugs like lithium and cyclosporine in particular can lead to kidney failure. 
  • Drink at least two liters of fluid each day, preferably water. If you don't drink enough water to produce adequate urine it can lead to urinary tract infections which can cause kidney stones to develop. 
  • Consider having your kidney function tested regularly if you feel you are at risk of kidney disease. Kidney function can be reduced to 80-90% before any physical symptoms develop. 
  • To maintain a healthy liver and kidneys it is important to eat healthy and drink plenty of water daily. 
  • Fruits and vegetables is very helpful for remove the waste from the bloodstream. Eat wide range of fruits and vegetables. The easy way to remember to eat a wide range of fresh fruits and vegetables is to do the rainbow color of the variety in choosing something from all the different colors of fruits and vegetables. 
  • Eating a wide range of healthy foods will give you more of the nutritional intake of a better balanced diet. In addition consider expanding your horizon of new types of healthy food categories that are on your pyramid diet plan. The antioxidants in the Rainbow Colored choices to make so you can have some of every color in your regular diet with the intake of your fruits and vegetables might safe guard you against certain illnesses and diseases;such as cancer and will keep your immune system stronger especially during cold and flu season. 
  • Drink 2 liters of a day. Get can be filtered water, distilled or mineral. Just as long as it is free of chlorine and other chemicals that are in unfiltered tap water. 
  • Eat 5 servers of fruits and vegetables daily. 
  • The bulk of your food intake should consist of whole grain foods and legumes. 
  • The smaller portions should consist of (preferably) low fat diary products, fish once or twice a week in small portions (as to not get to much heavy metels or mercury in the diet), skinless poultry and lean meat and nuts. 
  • Count calories. Watch your calorie intake and keep it at or below the standard amount for your height and weight. Lower calories intake if you are obese. 
  • Obesity increases a persons risk for Liver Disease. In America there are 74% of the population 25 years and older are overweight. Having an excess of fat on the body effects the internal organs by making them harder to function properly. 
  • Alcohol increases the risk of Liver Disease, Hepatitis by 50% and Cirrhosis by 15 to 30%. 
  • Drugs play a major role in the damage to the liver and kidneys as well as the overall wellbeing of the individuals life. 
  • Regular exercise helps the organs by stretching them as you workout and thereby strengthening them. Exercise no less than 3 times a week Walking, running, jogging, swimming, hiking, aerobics and other forms of fitness training that will keep you in shape will benefit the internal organs as well as increase years to your life. Choose to exercise by fitness activities that you enjoy doing or are more out to do. If it is walking than walk with a friend(s). Join a Fitness Club, YMCA, or a sports activity. It is never to late to start playing baseball, soccer or jogging a jogging team. Stick to stuff you like to do and that will increase your success rate of maintaining an active regular fitness program.


Function Kidney Nephron Animation

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 function kidney nephronin the human body normally

1. Urine Production And Blood Filtration
(1) Blood with waste enters the kidney through the renal artery. The artery divides into smaller and smaller blood vessels, called arterioles, eventually ending in the tiny capillaries of the glomerulus in each of the Nephrons.

(2) The Blood in kidney get into glomerulus through Affarent Arteriole. In glomerulus, blood travel through twist and turn capilaries. The capillary walls here are quite thin, and the blood pressure within the capillaries is high. The result is that water, along with any substances that may be dissolved in it typically salts, glucose or sugar, amino acids, and the waste products urea and uric acid are pushed out through the thin capillary walls, where they are collected in Bowman's capsule.

kidney function blood test
Larger particles in the blood, such as red blood cells and protein molecules, are too bulky to pass through the capillary walls and they remain in the bloodstream. The blood, which is now filtered, leaves the glomerulus through Everent Arteriole, which branches into the meshlike network of blood vessels around the renal tubule. The blood then exits the kidney through the renal vein. Approximately 180 liters (about 50 gallons) of blood moves through the two kidneys every day.

(3) Urine production begins with the substances that the blood leaves behind during its passage through the kidney the water, salts, and other substances collected from the glomerulus in Bowman’s capsule. This liquid, called glomerular filtrate, moves from Bowman’s capsule through Proximal Convulated Tubule. As the filtrate flows through the renal tubule, the network of blood vessels surrounding the tubule reabsorbs much of the water, salt, and virtually all of the nutrients, especially glucose and amino acids, that were removed in the glomerulus. This important process, called tubular reabsorption, enables the body to selectively keep the substances it needs while ridding itself of wastes. Eventually, about 99 percent of the water, salt, and other nutrients is reabsorbed. This process happens in Henle’s Loop.

(4) At the same time that the kidney reabsorbs valuable nutrients from the glomerular filtrate, it carries out an opposing task, called tubular secretion. In this process, unwanted substances from the capillaries surrounding the nephron are added to the glomerular filtrate. These substances include various charged particles called ions, including ammonium, hydrogen, and potassium ions. The secretion of potassium by the distal tubule is one of the most important events in the dikney as its control is fundamental to the maintance of overall potassium balance.

(5) Together, glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and tubular secretion produce urine, which flows into collecting ducts, which guide it into the microtubules of the pyramids. The urine is then stored in the renal cavity and eventually drained into the ureters, which are long, narrow tubes leading to the bladder. From the roughly 180 liters (about 50 gallons) of blood that the kidneys filter each day, about 1.5 liters (1.3 qt) of urine are produced.

2. Body’s Water Volume Regulator
Other kidney’s essential function is to regulate the amount of water contained in the blood. This process is influenced by antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also called vasopressin, which is produced in the hypothalamus (a part of the brain that regulates many internal function) and stored in the nearby pituitary gland. Receptors in the brain monitor the blood’s water concentration. When the amount of salt and other substance in the blood becomes to high, the pituitary gland release ADH into the bloodstream.

The blood contained ADH from the brain flow and get into the kidney. In the presence of ADH the renal tubules and colecting ducts become freely permeable to solute and water. It cause more water reabsorbed into the bloodstream. On the other hand in the absence of ADH the collecting ducts are impermeable to solute and water; thus, the fluid in the lumen, from which some solute has been remove, remains less concentrated than plasma; the urine is dilute.

3. Blood Pressure Regulator
Regulating blood pressure is linked to the kidneys' ability to excrete enough sodium chloride (salt) to maintain normal sodium balance, extracellular fluid volume and blood volume. Kidney disease is the most common cause of secondary hypertension (high blood pressure). Even minor disruptions in kidney function play a role in most (if not all) cases of high blood pressure and increased injury to the kidneys. This injury can eventually cause malignant hypertension, stroke or even death.

In normal people, when there's a higher intake of sodium chloride (salt), the body adjusts. It excretes more sodium without raising arterial pressure. However, many outside influences can reduce the kidneys' ability to excrete sodium. If the kidneys are less able to excrete salt with normal or higher salt intake, chronic increases in extracellular fluid volume and blood volume result. This leads to high blood pressure. When there is an increase in hormones and neurotransmitters that cause blood vessels to narrow, even small increases in blood volume are compounded. (This is due to the smaller area of blood vessel through which the blood is forced to flow.) Although the increases in arterial pressure lead the kidneys to excrete more sodium (which restores the sodium balance), higher pressure in the arteries may persist. This shows the important link between kidney disease and high blood pressure.

The hormone aldosterone, produced by the adrenal glands, interacts with the kidneys to regulate the blood’s sodium and potassium content. High amounts of aldosterone cause the nephrons to reabsorb more sodium ions, more water, and fewer potassium ions; low levels of aldosterone have the reverse effect. The kidney’s responses to aldosterone help keep the blood’s salt levels within the narrow range that is best for crucial physiological activities.

Aldosterone also helps regulate blood pressure. When blood pressure starts to fall, the kidney releases an enzyme (a specialized protein) called renin, which converts a blood protein into the hormone angiotensin. This hormone causes blood vessels to constrict, resulting in a rise in blood pressure. Angiotensin then induces the adrenal glands to release aldosterone, which promotes sodium and water to be reabsorbed, further increasing blood volume and blood pressure.

4. Body’s Acid Base Balance
The kidney also adjusts the body’s acid base balance to prevent such blood disorders as acidosis and alkalosis, both of which impair the functioning of the central nerveous system. If the blood is too acidic, meaning that there is an excess of hydrogen ions, the kidney moves these ions to the urine through the process of tubular secretion.

5. Production of Hormones
1) Erythropoietin
Several hormones are produced in the kidney. One of these, erythropoietin, influences the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow. When the kidney detects that the number of red blood cells in the body is declining, it secretes erythropoietin. This hormone travels in the bloodstream to the bone marrow, stimulating the production and release of more red cells.

Erythropoietin is a glycoprotein. It acts on the bone marrow to increase the production of red blood cells. Stimuli such as bleeding or moving to high altitudes (where oxygen is scarcer) trigger the release of EPO. People with failing kidneys can be kept alive by dialysis. But dialysis only cleanses the blood of wastes. Without a source of EPO, these patients suffer from anemia. Now, thanks to recombinant DNA technology, recombinant human EPO is available to treat these patients.

Because EPO increases the hematocrit, it enables more oxygen to flow to the skeletal muscles. Some cyclists (and distance runners) have used recombinant EPO to enhance their performance. Although recombinant EPO has exactly the same sequence of amino acids as the natural hormone, the sugars attached by the cells used in the pharmaceutical industry differ from those attached by the cells of the human kidney. This difference can be detected by a test of the athlete's urine.

Prolonged exposure to reduced oxygen levels (e.g., living at high altitude) leads to increased synthesis of EPO. In mice, and perhaps in humans, this effect is mediated by the skin. Mouse skin cells can detect low levels of oxygen ("hypoxia") and if this persists, blood flow to the kidneys diminishes leading to increased synthesis of EPO by them.

Recently it has been found that EPO is also synthesized in the brain when oxygen becomes scarce there (e.g., following a stroke), and helps protect neurons from damage. Perhaps recombinant human EPO will turn out to be useful for stroke victims as well.
2) Calcitriol
Calcitriol is 1,25[OH]2 Vitamin D3, the active form of vitamin D. It is derived from calciferol (vitamin D3) which is synthesized in skin exposed to the ultraviolet rays of the sun
precursors ("vitamin D") ingested in the diet. Calciferol in the blood is converted into the active vitamin in two steps:
i. calciferol is converted in the liver into 25[OH] vitamin D3
ii. this is carried to the kidneys (bound to a serum globulin) where it is converted into calcitriol. This final step is promoted by the parathyroid hormone (PTH).

Calcitriol acts on the cells of the intestine to promote the absorption of calcium from food. Calcitriol acts also in the bone to mobilize calcium from the bone to the blood Calcitriol enters cells and, if they contain receptors for it (intestine cells do), it binds to them. The calcitriol receptors are zinc-finger transcription factors. Insufficient calcitriol prevents normal deposition of calcium in bone.

In childhood, this produces the deformed bones characteristic of rickets. In adults, it produces weakened bones causing osteomalacia.The most common causes are inadequate amounts of the vitamin in the diet or insufficient exposure to the sun.However, some rare inherited cases turn out to be caused by inheriting two mutant genes for the kidney enzyme that converts 25[OH] vitamin D3 into calcitriol.Other cases of inherited rickets (also very rare) are caused by inheriting two defective genes for the calcitriol receptor. Mutations that change the amino acids in one or another of the zinc fingers interfere with binding to the DNA of the response element.

anatomy kidney picture

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anatomy kidney picture in the body
anatomyzone kidney

1.    Renal Pyramid
2.    Interlobar Arteries
3.    Renal Arteries
4.    Renal Veins
5.    Renal Hilum
6.    Renal Pelvis
7.    Ureter
8.    Minor Calyx
9.    Renal Capsule
10.    Inferior Renal Capsule

11.    Superior Renal Capsule
12.    Interlobar Veins
13.    Nephron
14.    Minor Calyx
15.    Major Calyx
16.    Papillia
17.    Renal Column
Cortex is the outside of the kidney; it is a reddish-brown with a granular appearance. It contains all the glomeruli and convoluted tubules.

Medulla is the inner part of the kidney; it is a light color and appears striated as a result of the parallel arrangement of loops of Henle, medullary collecting ducts and blood vessels. Outer medulla is closer to cortex; inner medulla is farther from the cortex

Each lobe has pyramid of medullary tissue and cortical tissue.  The apex of the medullary pyramid forms the renal papilla which drains the urine to the minor calyx.  The minor calyxes form the major calyx.  Major calyxes lead to the renal pelvis.  The renal pelvis is drained by ureter.  Renal hilem is where the ureter, renal artery and vein, nerves and lymph vessels exit or enter the kidney.

Urinary Excretion Structures

urinary with blood

Kidneys are bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located near the middle of the back, just below the rib cage, one on each side of the spine.  Every day, a person's kidneys process about 200 quarts of blood to sift out about 2 quarts of waste products and extra water.

Adrenal glands are small, triangular glands located on top of both kidneys. There are two parts the outer region is called the adrenal cortex and the inner region is called the adrenal medulla. They influence blood pressure and sodium and water retention.

Renal cortex contains the blood filtering mechanism

Renal medulla contains the renal pyramids

Renal Pyramids are cone-shaped tissues of the kidney. The renal medulla is made up of 8 to 18 of these conical subdivisions. The broad base of each pyramid faces the renal cortex, and its apex, or papilla, points internally. The pyramids appear striped because they are formed by straight parallel segments of nephrons.

 Nephrons
•    About 1 million in each kidney
•    Filter waste products, reabsorb nutrients and water, and secrete excess substances from the body
•    Parts of the nephron
  • o    Renal corpuscle  Glomerulus=tuft of capillaries
    Bowman's capsule=surrounds the glomerulus (also called the glomerular capsule). This is the location of filtration
o    Renal Tubule
    Proximal convoluted tubule: collects filtrate from Bowman's capsule
    Proximal straight tubule
    Loop of Henle: has a thin descending and ascending limb and a thick ascending limb
    Distal convoluted tubule
•    Collecting tubule receives input from many different nephrons
•    Types of Nephrons
o    Cortical nephrons which contain the glomerulus further out in the cortex; loops of Henle only descend to outer medualla and have shorter loops. These nephrons account for 80% of all nephrons.
o    Juxtaglomedulary nephrons sit next the medualla.  They have long Loops of Henle that go down to the inner medualla. These account for 20% of all nephrons.
•    Juxaglomerular Apparatus controls blood flow to the glomerulus to regulate filtration and absorption.

Structure Of Nephron explained detail here

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Structure Of nephron can be detail here
  • Glomerulus
The glomerulus is the main filter of the nephron and is located within the Bowman's capsule. A glomerulus and its surrounding Bowman's capsule constitute a renal corpuscle, the basic filtration unit of the kidney. From the Bowman’s Capsule, extends a narrow vessel, called the proximal convoluted tubule. This tubule twists and turns until it drains into a collecting tubule that carries urine toward the renal pelvis.
Glomerulus is a network of extremely thin blood vessels called capillaries. The glomerulus resembles a twisted mass of tiny tubes through which the blood passes. The glomerulus is semipermeable, allowing water and soluble wastes to pass through and be excreted out of the Bowman's capsule as urine. The filtered blood passes out of the glomerulus into the Efferent arteriole to be returned through the medullary plexus to the intralobular vein. 
tubule

A large volume of ultrafiltrate is produced by the glomerulus into the capsule. As this liquid traverses the proximal convoluted tubule, most of its water and salts are reabsorbed, some of the solutes completely and others partially. 
tubule kidney

A glomerulus is a capillary tuft surrounded by Bowman's capsule in nephrons. It receives its blood supply from an afferent arteriole of the renal circulation. Unlike most other capillary beds, the glomerulus drains into an efferent arteriole rather than a venule. The resistance of the arterioles results in high pressure in the glomerulus aiding the process of ultrafiltration where fluids and soluble materials in the blood are forced out of the capillaries and into Bowman's capsule. The rate at which blood is filtered through all of the glomeruli, and thus the measure of the overall renal function, is the glomerular filtration rate (GFR).
  • Henle’s Loop

 Henle’s Loop is part of renal tubule which become extremely narrow that extending down away from Bowman’s capsule and then back up again form a U shape. Surrounding loop of Henle and the other parts of the renal tubule is a network of capillaries, which are formed from a small blood vessel that branches out from glomerulus. 
uretra

The liquid entering the loop is the solution of salt, urea, and other substances passed along from glomerulus by proximal convoluted tubule. In this tubule, most of the dissolved components needed by the body; particularly glucose, amino acids, and sodium bicarbonate, is reabsorbed into the blood. The first segment of the loop, the descending limb, is permeable to water, and the liquid reaching the bend of the loop is much richer than the blood plasma in salt and urea. 
vagina health


As the liquid returns through the ascending limb, sodium chloride diffuses out of the tubule into the surrounding tissue, where its concentration is lower. In the third segment of the loop, the tubule wall can, if necessery, effect further removal of salt, even against the concentration gradient, in an active-transport process requiring the expenditure of energy. In a healty person the reabsorption of salt from the urine exactly maintains the bodily requirement: during periods of low salt intake, none is allowed to escape in the urine, but, in periods of high salt intake, the excess is excreted. 


Also called Duct of Bellini, any of the long narrow tubes in the kidney that concentrate and transport urine from the nephrons, to larger ducts that connect with the renal calyces. The liquid from the loop of Henle get into the Distal Convoluted Tubule in which reabsorbtion of sodium continues throughout the whole distal tubule. This reabsorbtion extends to the early part of the Renal Collecting Tubule.
Each collecting tubule is about 20-22 milimetres long and 20-50 microns in diameter. The walls of the tubule are composed of cell with hairlike projection, flagellae, in the tube’s channel. Motions of the flagellae help to move secretion through the tubes. As the collecting tubes become wider in diameter, the cells increase in height so that the wall becomes thicker.
The function of the collecting tubes are transportation of urine and absorbtion of water. It is thought that the tissue of the kidney’s medulla, or inner substance, contains a high concentration of sodium. As the collecting tubule travel through the medulla, the concentration of sodium causes water to be extracted through the tubule walls into the medulla. The water diffuses out between the collecting wall cells until the concentration of sodium is equal in the tubes and outside them. Removal of water from the solution in the tubes serves to concentrate the urine content and conserve body water.