Aorta Definition

The aorta is the large artery, the largest main blood vessel in the body. It starts from the lower left chamber of the heart, or left ventricle, arches over to run down along the spinal column, and on its way to the abdomen gives off branches to the head, all internal organs, and to the limbs.

The aorta is about 3/4% of an inch in diameter becoming narrower as it goes down in the abdomen where it divides into the right and left "common iliac arteries."

The opening of the left heart chamber (left ventricle) into the aorta is guarded by 3 valves called the aortic semilunar valves. When these valves are diseased there may be a leak of the blood from the aorta back into the left heart; this condition is called "aortic-regurgitation."

The firstportion of the aorta as it comes out of the heart is about 2 inches long and is called the ascending aorta; this part is a little more than an inch in width.

The second portion is called the arch and is a little over an inch in length and a little less than an inch in width.

The third part is the longest, being about 8 inches long and is called the descending aorta, which passes against the back wall of the chest and then against the back wall of the abdomen; and at the level of the navel it divides into the cornmon iliacs.


MINERAL SALTS, INCLUDING TABLE SALT, AND WATER ARE NECESSARY TO THE MAINTENANCE OF LIFE AND HEALTH Living matter (protoplasm) keeps itself alive by the series of constant chemical reactions going on within itself and with-in the liquid medium by which it is surrounded. Living matter (protoplasm) segregates itself into separate microscopic units called cells.

sea salt
An aggregation of cells with its blood and nerve supply makes up a tissue, like muscle, bone, or nerve tissue. Every tissue has its characteristic type of cells; muscle cells differ in size, shape and color from nerve cells. Each cell is a mixture of complicated organic chemical compounds and of salts and water. About 75% of the cell protoplasm is water; the rest consists of
  1.  proteins, which are compounds of the "amino acids" that build cells and produce growth,
  2. carbohydrates, which give heat and energy when oxidized, and
  3. fats, which serve the same purpose as the carbohydrates. 
Lipoids are fatlike sompounds which are found at the surfaces of cells and probably determine and control the entrance and exit of the other substances, to and from the cell. The "amino acids" and their compounds are the lime, straw, cement and brick that build cells and tissues.

The ability of the compounds which make up cell protoplasm to change instantaneously from one form into another and reverse again, and the physicochemical reactions producing these changes, this instability and equilibrium, are the processes that keep the cell alive; in fact, it is the secret of life.

The physical processes of osmosis, diffusion, surface tension and the electrolytic dissociation into positive and negative ions of salts, acids and bases when dissolved in water are the forces governing and mobilizing the perpetual chemical reactions which maintain the life of every single body cell.

Every tissue of the body consists of single cells which are surrounded by the liquid (tissue fluid) in which the cell is bathed, receiving its nourishment from it and discharging its waste products into it.

The tissue fluid is constantly renewed by the small blood vessels (capillaries) bringing a continuous fresh supply of nourishment and oxygen and removing the waste products.

In this last function, the blood vessels are assisted by the lymph vessels. The blood gets the nourishing material in pure chemical form from the intestines and the liver after the digestion of the food taken into the stomach, and the blood obtains oxygen through the lungs from the inspired air.

The protein, fat, carbohydrates, mineral salts and water we take into the stomach in the form of food change by digestion into two general classes of chemical compounds mixed with or dis-solved in water. These two classes of compounds and the forms in which they are taken up by the blood as nourishment are:
  1.  Crystalloids, the salts and sugars.
  2. Colloids, the albuminoids, proteoses and peptones, glycogen and fat. 
The characteristics of the crystalloids are that they thoroughly dissolve and diffuse in water; possess osmotic pressure, that is, they will pass through animal membranes (parchment, for in-stance) from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration; and will separate or dissociate while in solution into electrically positive and negative ions (cations and anions).

On account of the presence of electrically positive and negative ions in the blood and elsewhere in body, the body is able to conduct electric currents like a battery.

The characteristics of the colloids are that they do not dissolve in water, but form mixtures and emulsions; do not possess osmotic pressure and, therefore, do not pass through animal membranes; and do not break up into ions.

 The ability of gases to diffuse through animal membranes from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration, as crystalloids do, makes the oxygen of the air pass from the lungs into the blood and from the blood into the cell, and also makes carbon dioxide (CO2), the waste product of cell oxidation, pass in the reverse direction from the cell into the blood and out through the lungs in expiration.

The air taken into the lungs by inspiration needs a certain amount of water (moisture) so as not to dry out the air passages; that the expired air containing carbonic acid (carbon dioxide) also contains water (moisture) you can tell by blowing your breath on a windowpane and noticing the moisture deposited thereon.

While the body cells are collected in masses forming different tissues, as nerves, muscles, etc., and different organs, as the stomach, brain, etc., each individual cell in these tissues leads practically its own individual life existence in the tiny and limited pool of tissue fluid by which it is surrounded.

Viewing the body cell in this light, it is really not different from the "ameba," the living and multiplying pinpoint-sized, single-cell animalcule found in country ponds and shallow waters.

Mind and Body Spirit

MIND AND BODY Biologically speaking, what we call mind or mental activity is the product of the brain or rather is the function of the brain.

We know that the heart can pulsate even when separated from the body, but we cannot conceive of the brain functioning without the body because the function of the brain is to receive impressions from the rest of the body through the nerves and the special senses of sight, hearing and touch as well as the other senses.

The brain not only needs the functioning of the rest of the body to keep its tissues alive, but it needs the rest of the body to bring to it impressions of the outer world. What the brain does with these outer world impressions and also with the impressions it receives from its own body is to perceive, reason, judge, memorize, forget, believe, disbelieve, will or reject, act and direct.

The brain is the director and controller of the body's activity and its relation with the outside world and with the Cosmos itself. The mind, or rather the brain, as can be seen, depends on the body for its functioning. The body depends on the environment for bringing sensations to the brain. The immediate environment depends on the cosmos or universe.

The brain cannot sustain itself unless nourished by a living, functioning body; the body cannot keep alive unless sustained by a favorable earthly environment; the earthly or worldly environment, as we know it, cannot sustain itself unless it is maintained in proper relationship with the rest of the heavenly bodies.

Just as we cannot overlook the relation. ship between body and mind, we also cannot separate our mind from its relationship to the universe and its ultimate Power, the Creator of the Universe.

Because, as I said in the first sentence of this topic, "biologically" it is explainable how the brain depends on the body for its functioning, but how the human brain really performs the function it does cannot be explained, any more than fife itself or the ultimate force of the split atom can be explained.

 For the ultimate explanations we must resort to the ultimate conception uppermost in the human mind of an ultimate Power and an ultimate Will of which we are a part. However, leaving the ultimate mystery of our mind, soul and the rest of Creation to the continued contemplation of future generations, we can try to discover the manner of our mind's working and how to direct and control it so far as we are able.

Even the behaviorists admit that we do not arrive into this world with an entirely blank mind and that as we first open our eyes on this puzzling world we already possess the instincts of self-preservation and self-perpetuation; and soon we also know the emotions of fear, anger and love; and of course, we are already able to perform reflexly some such fancy tricks as crying, suckling, moving our limbs and moving the contents of the bowel and bladder, coughing and hiccuping.

With all that, we are a flexible, pliable, elastic and plastic mass. We can be molded into a thinking, feeling, loving and aspiring individual providing that chance is given to us and providing that we stay pliable, elastic and adjustable providing also that we keep loose and free from our primitive fear, greed and anger by concentrating on thinking and feeling righteously and aspiring to higher and nobler goals.

The emotions of fear, greed and anger that accompany the primitive instincts of self-preservation and reproduction must be superseded by the higher aims for which the human mind was chosen.

When this transformation is accomplished by parents, teachers and by the individual himself, he may be certain to have his mind free from all the obsessions and phobias which are the causes of neuroses and mental ailments.

Edema Symptoms

Edema is the escape of fluid from the smallest arteries and veins (capillaries and venules) into the tissues, so that all parts of the body and the of the body cavities become overfilled and greatly swollen.

It ussually starts in the legs and increases upward.It may be caused by inflammations and infections, when the edema is confined to the part or cavity affected.

It may also have its origin in varicose veins which cause obstruction and stagnation of the blood circulation in the legs, and thus the legs will swell up and pit on pressure.

Edematous swellings like hives are a manifestation of allergy to certain foods, which produces a weakening of the capillary walls (capillary fragility), thus permitting an escape of fluids into the tissues.

The most common causes of general edema, which starts at the ankles and spreads up until the whole body is involved, are diseases of the heart, kidneys and liver.

When diseases of these organs are neglected, edema finally develops. In all cases of edema, the salt intake must be restricted to almost zero; all foods containing sodium must be eliminated. Cathartics like magnesium sulphate are given to cause diarrhea, and thus drain away some of the excess of fluid from the body.

The modern diuretics Diamox and Diuril are most effective in removing edema fluid by way of the urinary tract

Meningitis Caused

Meningitis is an infection of the membranes covering the brain, and always when the membranes are inflamed and infected the brain becomes involved at the same time. Meningitis occurs frequently in epidemics spread by the
coughing and sneezing of grown ups or children who are carriers of the germs in their nasal passages and throats.

These people are themselves immune, but when others inhale the droplets coughed and sneezed by them, the victims develop meningitis. Meningitis may develop from infections of the face, nose or ears and may be caused by any germ besides the meningococcus germ.

Cultures from the nose and throat as well as blood cultures are needed to make certain which the causative germ is. Some cases of meningitis are caused by the tuberculosis germ. Keeping infections out of the body, especially from the nose and throat, and observing personal and general hygiene, will prevent these infections.

Carriers of meningococcus germs in their noses may easily be cured by simple irrigation and the use of a mild antiseptic, as neosilvol 5% solution, in the nose and throat. An attack of meningitis comes on with fever, severe headache, pain and oversensitiveness all over the body, stiffness of the neck and bending backward of the head; deafness and blindness may also develop.

There is nausea and vomiting, great restlessness and twitchings, sometimes convulsions and coma. For the epidemic form the Flexner antimeningococcus serum is of great help; the sulfa drugs and penicillin in large doses should be used from the very start.

The patient should be kept in bed in a darkened, quiet room, the bowels must be cleared by giving him citrate of magnesia or Epsom salt at first and then followed by a daily enema. The diet must be in liquid form, given every z or 3 hours, and consisting of strained cereals, diluted milk,fruit juices with egg stirred into them and plenty of water.

An icebag should be put on the patient's head and cool sponging of the body with dilute alcohol should be kept up steadily. With the present aid of sulfa and penicillin treatments some of the severest cases of meningitis recover.


Meninges refers to the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. These are three in number: the innermost one is called "pia mater," the middle "arachnoid," and the outer "dura mater."

The brain membranes become injured in fractures of the skull and often become swollen just from a slight injury to the head, as in case of concussion. When the membrane is injured and inflamed, it may involve the brain tissue itself. An infection of the brain membranes is called meningitis

What is Skin

what is skin
The skin is a structure having many important functions besides making the body beautiful. It preserves the contour of the body, serves as a protective covering, is the sensory organ of touch, is an excretory organ excreting water, salts and carbon dioxide, and is also a body heat regulator.

The skin consists of 2 main layers. The epidermis is the outer layer and is made up of strata of simple epithelial cells destined to be cast off as dead dandruff. In the deeper strata of the epidermis is also contained the pigment which gives the skin its characteristic complexion.

The hair and nails are outgrowths of the epidermis. The dermis, corium or true skin is the deep layer of the skin which rests on a bed of fat and subcutaneous tissue.

This layer, unlike the epidermis which is made up of halfdead and dying cells, is very much alive and carries all the skin glands and hair roots, as well as blood vessels and nerve endings. The true skin and the subcutaneous tissue below the skin contain the sweat glands, the sebaceous oil glands which are connected with the hair roots.

As stated before, the sweat glands excrete waste products and water just like the kidneys. The sweat also regulates the body heat, constantly moistening the body surface and cooling it by evaporation.

The hotter the weather, the more we sweat. But the skin always sweats even in cool weather, and because the perspiration is much less and evaporates quickly it is not noticeable and is therefore called "invisible perspiration." The oil secreted by the sebaceous glands keeps the skin soft and pliable.

But never allow the oil to accumulate, because bacteria accumulate just as well and thrive luxuriously on the warm, oily secretion, so that some of the most virulent bacteria become "permanent residents" in the skin; and sooner or later pimples, pustules, boils or even carbuncles will crop out on the most beautiful skins, and you will wonder how it ever happened to you.

Well, layers of grease, powder and rouge applied with unsterilized puffs and perhaps with unwashed fingers deposit billions of germs on the skin where they find plenty of food to thrive on, and the result is disastrous to the complexion and to the general health.

Plenty of soap and water used daily on the hands, face, and on the rest of the body will remove all danger of skin infections. The skin when kept clean and healthy acts as a barrier and really possesses powers of immunity against germs, but when you overload and overwhelm it with billions of parasites and allow them to become permanently imbedded

What is protein

what is protein
Protein is one of the most important constituents of our food because it is the chief constituent of the body cell, of body tissues and of body fluids. You must supply yourself with fresh protein daily, since proteins are constantly needed to replace the wear and tear of the tissues and keep up the protein concentration in the blood serum.

While protein can take the place of some fat and carbohydrate, fat and carbohydrate will not serve the body need for protein. That is why the minimum amount of protein, from a good source, must be consumed daily. The best sources of protein for optimum health are milk, eggs and meat.

It is not necessary to devour pounds of steak, dozens of eggs or gallons of milk daily for that purpose. In fact, excessive amounts of these foods may do more harm than good. But one pint of milk, an egg or two, and a quarter to a half pound of meat daily are an absolute necessity.

Proteins are made up of amino acids containing nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus in addition to the carbon, hydrogen and oxygen that are present in fats and carbohydrates as well as in proteins. We can also obtain protein from the legumes, beans, lentils and peas, but the proteins from this source do not contain all the amino acids and are not as easily assimilable as the animal proteins.